Sample Question Paper based on new syllabus (since 2016-17) and new pattern

FYBA SEMESTER I - POLITICS PAPER I - INDIAN POLITICAL SYSTEM - SUB TITLE - THE CONSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER - MARKS 100 - DURATION 3 HOURS.

    N. B. :- विशेष सूचनाः-
    1. All questions are compulsory.
      सर्व प्रश्न सोडविणे अनिवार्य.
    2. Attempt any two questions out of 3 sub-questions in question no. 1, 2, 3 and 4.
      प्रश्न क्र. 1, 2, 3 आणि 4 मधील तीन उपप्रश्नांपैकी कोणतेही दोन प्रश्न सोडवा.
    3. All questions carry 20 marks. (Each sub-question carries 10 marks.)

    4. सर्व प्रश्नांना 20 गुण आहेत. (प्रत्येक उपप्रश्नाला 10 गुण आहेत.)

    1. Briefly discuss the process of making the Indian Constitution.
      भारतीय राज्यघटना तयार करण्याच्या प्रक्रियेची थोडक्यात चर्चा करा.
    2. Explain the philosophy of Indian Constitution.
      भारतीय राज्यघटनेचे तत्त्वज्ञान थोडक्यात स्पष्ट करा.
    3. What are the salient features of Indian Constitution?
      भारतीय राज्यघटनेची वैशिष्ट्ये कोणती आहेत ?
    1. Briefly discuss fundamental right to equality.
      समानतेच्या मूलभूत हक्काची थोडक्यात चर्चा करा.
    2. Briefly discuss the fundamental right to religion.
      धर्मविषयक मूलभूत हक्काची थोडक्यात चर्चा करा.
    3. What are directive principles of state policy? State any four principles.
      राज्याच्या धोरणाची मार्गदर्शक तत्त्वे म्हणजे काय ? कोणतीही चार तत्त्वे सांगा.
    1. Describe the structure and functions of Loksabha.
      लोकसभेच्या रचनेचे आणि कार्यांचे वर्णन करा.
    2. Explain the structure and functions of Supreme Court of India.
      भारतीय सर्वोच्च न्यायालयाची रचना आणि कार्ये स्पष्ट करा.
    3. What is judicial activism? Is it justified in the current situation?
      न्यायालयीन कृतीशीलता म्हणजे काय ? सध्याच्या परिस्थितीत ही कृतीशीलता समर्थनीय आहे का ?
    1. State the powers and functions of Indian President.
      भारतीय राष्ट्रपतींच्या कार्यांचे आणि अधिकारांचे वर्णन करा.
    2. What are the factors that make the Prime Minister superior than other ministers?
      पंतप्रधानांना इतर मंत्र्यांपेक्षा मोठे बनविणारे घटक कोणते आहेत ?
    3. Discuss the provisions of 73rd amendment to the Indian Constitution.
      भारतीय राज्यघटनेच्या 73 व्या घटनादुरुस्ती मधील तरतूदींची चर्चा करा.
    1. Write short notes (any two out of four)
      टीपा लिहा - चार पैकी कोणत्याही दोन.
    2. Constituent Assembly of India. भारताची घटना समिती.
    3. Right against exploitation. शोषणाविरुद्धचा हक्क.
    4. Rajyasabha. राज्यसभा.
    5. 74th amendment to the Indian Constitution. भारतीय राज्यघटनेची 74 वी घटना दुरुस्ती.

Leadership Theories - Trait Theory

Trait Theory of Leadership

  1. Oldest theory of leadership - now criticised and considered outdated.
  2. Main argument was that leaders are born with peculiar qualities and they are different from non-leaders.
  3. It all began with Thomas Carlyle's (1795-1881) famous work "On Heroes, Hero Worship and the Heroic in History", where he explains that the key role in history lie in the actions of great men. He claims that History is nothing but the biography of the Great men.
  4. Critics of this theory say that leadership exists between persons in a social situation - a person who leads in a particular situation very well may fail drastically in other situations.
  5. The theory re-emerged in 2000.
  6. Leadership traits:-
    1. Innovation
    2. Creativity
    3. Openness to experience
    4. Self-confidence
    5. Extroversion
    6. Agreeableness
    7. Honesty and Integrity
    8. Charisma
    9. Energy
    10. Achievement motivation
    11. Assertive
    12. Trusting
    13. Caring and gentle
    14. Communication
    15. General problem solving skills
    16. Decision making
    17. Neuroticism

    Big 5 personality traits

    1. Openness to Experience
    2. Conscientiousness
    3. Extraversion
    4. Agreeableness
    5. Neuroticism

    Traits classified

    Scholars taking the trait approach attempted to identify :-

  7. physiological (appearance, height, and weight), demographic (age, education and socioeconomic background),
  8. personality, self-confidence, and aggressiveness),
  9. intellective (intelligence, decisiveness, judgment, and knowledge),
  10. task-related (achievement drive, initiative, and persistence), and
  11. social characteristics (sociability and cooperativeness)

    with leader emergence and leader effectiveness.

    Source:- https://managementstudyguide.com/trait-theory-of-leadership.htm

References:-

YouTube

Introduction

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=twKJupprdJU

Trait theory in Psychology

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JBhwr9EOUko

Big Five Personality Traits

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDb0PVSzjyk

I'm a O93-C13-E1-A27-N93 Big Five!!

This report says I'm about average on all of the Big Six personality factors. Is this right?

Extrovert or Extravert

http://www.preludecharacteranalysis.com/blog/extravert-or-extrovert

Carl Gustav Jung first coined the terms and he was very clear:

Extraversion [sic] is characterized by interest in the external object, responsiveness, and a ready acceptance of external happenings, a desire to influence and be influenced by events, a need to join in…the capacity to endure bustle and noise of every kind, and actually find them enjoyable, constant attention to the surrounding world, the cultivation of friends and acquaintances… The psychic life of this type of person is enacted, as it were, outside himself, in the environment.

CJ Jung, Psychological Types, CW 6, pars. 1-7

The Oxford English Dictionary doesn’t really help explain why it has changed, only that it has:

The original spelling ‘Extravert’ is now rare in general use but is found in technical use in psychology.

MIS - Management Information System - व्यवस्थापकीय माहिती प्रणाली

मी एका आधुनिक सोयींनी युक्त वाचनालयाचा सदस्य आहे. काही कारणास्तव सहा महिने वाचनालयात जाऊ शकलो नाही. सहा महिन्यांनंतर वाचनालयात गेलो तेव्हा लक्षात आले की पुस्तक देण्या घेण्याचे काम करणारा कर्मचारी बदलला आहे. मी त्याला पुस्तक परत केले, त्याने ते स्कॅन केले आणि त्याचे संभाषण सुरु झाले. सर तुम्ही सहामहिन्यांनंतर वाचनालयात आला आहात. सहा महिन्यांपूर्वी तुम्ही हे पुस्तक नेले होते. ते वेळेवर परत न केल्यामुळे त्यासंबंधीचा इतका दंड तुम्हाला भरावा लागेल. दंड भरला, लगेच पावती मिळाली आणि तो म्हणाला आता तुम्हाला परत नव्याने पुस्तके घेता येतील. मी संगणकावर पुस्तकाचा शोध घेतला. ते उपलब्ध आहे असा उल्लेखही तिथे होता. संबंधीत पुस्तक हवे आहे अशी नोंद करताच काही मिनिटात पुस्तक हजर झाले.

अत्याधुनिक ग्रंथालयातील पुस्तक घेण्याचा व्यवहार दाखवणारा हा व्हिडिओ पहा.

See the book vending machine here

फेसबुकवर तुमच्या मित्रांची यादी आहे. प्रत्येक मित्राचा वाढदिवस कधी आहे त्याची महिनावार यादी तुम्ही पाहू शकता आणि त्याप्रमाणे काही कार्यक्रमाची आखणी करू शकता. भेटी ठरवू शकता. या भेटींमुळे तुमचे संबंध अधिक चांगले होतील आणि त्याचा तुम्हाला काही फायदा होईल. फेसबुकवर खूप अॅक्टीव असणाऱ्या तुमच्या एखाद्या मित्राचे फेसबुक पेज सविस्तर पाहिले तर गेल्या महिनाभरात त्याने काय केले, त्याच्य आवडीनिवडी काय आहेत, त्याचा साधारण स्वभाव कसा असेल यासंबंधी तुम्ही काही अंदाज बांधू शकता.

दिवसाचे, आठवड्याचे किंवा महिन्याचे वेळापत्रक तुम्ही तुमच्या मोबाईलवर कॅलेंडर मध्ये सेव्ह करू शकता. योग्य वेळेस आठवण करून देण्याचे काम मोबाईल न चूकता करतो. एक प्रकारे तो तुमच्या पर्सनल सेक्रेटरीचे काम करतो.

अॅमेझॉन किंवा कुठल्याही ऑनलाईन बुकशॉपवर पुस्तक खरेदी करताना तुम्हाला येणारा अनुभव आठवा - तुम्ही एखादे पुस्तक शोधण्यासाठी त्याचे नाव टाकल्यावर त्या पुस्तकाबरोबर इतर अनेक पुस्तकांचे संदर्भही दिसतात. नेमके पुस्तक निवडल्यावर त्या पुस्तकासंबंधीच्या लोकांच्या प्रतिक्रिया आणि परिक्षणे तुम्हाला वाचता येतात. हे पुस्तक ज्यांनी विकत घेतले आहे त्यांनी आणखी कोणती पुस्तके पाहिली अथवा विकत घेतली हे पाहता येते. मागच्या काही दिवसात तुम्ही अॅमेझॉनवर कशाकशाचा शोध घेतला हेही तुम्हाला पाहता येते.

कुरियर कंपन्या कुरियर ट्रॅक करण्याची सुविधा देतात. ट्रॅकींग संबंधीचे हे इमेल पहा:-

12 ते 17 सप्टेंबर पर्यंतचा पार्सलचा सर्व प्रवास - तारीख, वेळ, काय घडले आणि कुठे घडले या सर्व माहितीसकट - सहा दिवस, तीन देश आणि सहा शहरातील हा प्रवास - व्यवस्थापकीय माहिती प्रणाली ही बदलती माहिती सतत नोंदवर राहते आणि ग्राहकांना कळवत राहते.

Tracking results as of Sep 17, 2016 6:24a GMT
Date/Time Activity/Location
9/17/2016 2:16 am Departed FedEx location GURGAON IN
9/17/2016 1:23 am In transit GURGAON IN
9/17/2016 12:37 am In transit GURGAON IN
9/16/2016 11:50 pm Arrived at FedEx location GURGAON IN
9/16/2016 9:48 pm Departed FedEx location NEW DELHI IN
9/16/2016 6:05 pm In transit NEW DELHI IN
9/16/2016 5:16 pm In transit NEW DELHI IN
9/16/2016 8:29 am International shipment release - Import NEW DELHI IN
9/14/2016 6:27 pm Clearance delay - Import NEW DELHI IN
9/14/2016 4:48 pm In transit NEW DELHI IN
9/14/2016 8:57 am Clearance delay - Import MUMBAI IN
9/14/2016 3:37 am Departed FedEx location ROISSY CHARLES DE GAULLE CEDEX FR
9/14/2016 2:33 am In transit ROISSY CHARLES DE GAULLE CEDEX FR
9/14/2016 1:19 am Arrived at FedEx location ROISSY CHARLES DE GAULLE CEDEX FR
9/13/2016 10:06 pm Left FedEx origin facility GATESHEAD GB
9/13/2016 9:16 pm Departed FedEx location ROISSY CHARLES DE GAULLE CEDEX FR
9/13/2016 5:31 pm In transit PAISLEY GB
9/13/2016 5:31 pm Left FedEx origin facility PAISLEY GB
9/13/2016 5:30 pm In transit PAISLEY GB
9/13/2016 5:30 pm Left FedEx origin facility PAISLEY GB
9/13/2016 4:06 pm Picked up PAISLEY GB
9/12/2016 2:54 am Shipment information sent to FedEx

रेल्वेचे तिकीट आरक्षित करताना आपण वापरतो ती व्यवस्थापकीय माहिती प्रणालीच असते. गाडी, तारीख, वेळ, प्रवास वर्ग, उपलब्ध जागा, किंमत ही सर्व माहिती क्षणाक्षणाला बदलत राहते. त्यानुसार आपण आपले निर्णय घेऊ शकतो. जगभरातून होणाऱ्या आरक्षणासंबंधीची आकडेवारी पाहिल्यानंतर रेल्वे अधिकाऱ्यांना आरक्षणाच्या एकूण प्रक्रियेमधील अडचणी समजतात. त्या माहितीच्या आधारे ते आरक्षण प्रणालीमध्ये सुधारणा करण्यासंबंधीचे निर्णय घेऊ शकतात.

काही मोठ्या शहरातील सिनेमा शो आरक्षित करण्याची सोय काही मोबाईल अॅपवर उपलब्ध आहे. हे MIS चे आणखी एक उत्तम उदाहरण.

ऑनलाईन बँकींग, ऑनलाईन शेअर व्यवहार ही आणखी काही उदाहरणे.

ही तुमच्या आमच्या रोजच्या जीवनातील व्यवस्थापकीय माहिती प्रणालींची उदाहरणे.

मोठ्या रुग्णालयात दाखल असलेल्या रुग्णांची सर्व माहिती संगणकावर साठवलेली असते. ती माहिती सतत अपडेट केली जाते - सतत बदलत राहते. सर्वात प्रथम या रुग्णाला दाखल करून घेता येईल की नाही हे ठरविण्याचा प्रश्न निर्माण होतो - उपलब्ध जागा, रुग्णाचा आजार आणि त्याची अवस्था, त्यावर उपचार होऊ शकेल की नाही, रुग्णाला होणारा खर्च परवडणारा आहे का इ्त्यादी संबंधीत प्रश्नही निर्माण होतात. या सर्व प्रश्नांची उत्तरे व्यवस्थापकीय माहिती प्रणाली सहज देऊ शकतात. या प्रणाली मध्ये एकूण खाटांची आणि खोल्यांची संख्या नोंदविलेली असते तसेच उपलब्ध खाटांची अद्ययावत माहितीही मिळते. स्वागत कक्षामधील कर्मचारी त्या माहितीच्या आधारे रुग्णांना योग्य मार्गदर्शन करू शकतात. रुग्णाची नोंद केल्यावर संबंधीत डॉक्टरला त्याची माहिती मिळते आणि तो पुढील कारवाई करतो. लेखा विभागात रुग्णांची बीले तयार केली जातात आणि ती वेळेवर भरली जात आहेत की नाही यांचीही नोंद ठेवली जाते. रुग्णालयाच्या वरिष्ठ अधिकाऱ्यांना आपल्या रुग्णालयात किती खाटा आहेत, किती आणि कोणत्या प्रकारचे रुग्ण आहेत, डॉक्टर्स आणि इतर कर्मचारी किती, वैद्यकीय आणि इतर उपकरणे किती, होणारा खर्च, मिळणारे उत्पऩ्न या सर्वाची माहिती क्षणार्धात एकाच ठिकाणी मिळू शकते. त्यानुसार ते रुग्णालयासंबंधीचे आपले धोरण ठरवू शकतात.

अशीच रोजच्या जीवनातील अनेक उदाहरणे देऊन एम. आय. एस. म्हणजे काय ते समजावून सांगणारा हा व्हिडीओ पहा.

मोबाईल फोनच्या रेकॉर्डवरून गुन्ह्याची उकल करणे आणि गुन्हेगार शोधून काढणे हे अगदी नित्याचे झाले आहे.

पॅन, आधार या ओळखपत्रांच्या सहाय्याने एखाद्या व्यक्तीचा मागोवा घेणे सरकारी संस्थांना अगदी सहज शक्य झाले आहे. आयकर विभाग नागरिकांच्या आर्थिक उलाढालींवर लक्ष ठेवून नेमकी कारवाई करू शकतो. कारवाईसाठी आवश्यक ती सर्व माहिती आणि पुरावे त्यांना एका क्लिकवर सहज उपलब्ध होते. गेल्या वर्षभरात किती नागरिकांनी 50,000 रुपयांच्या वरचे किती व्यवहार कुठल्या शहरात केले याची माहिती आयकर विभागाला सहज उपलब्ध होऊ शकते.

शेअर बाजाराच्या सर्व व्यवहारांवर सेबी याच प्रकारे लक्ष ठेवू शकते.

परदेशातून येणाऱ्या प्रवाशांची नोंद इमिग्रेशन विभागकडे केली जाते. त्यावरून वर्षाच्या शेवटी कोणत्या देशातून किती पर्यटक आले, त्यांनी भारतात कुठे भेटी दिल्या ही सर्व माहिती सरकारला मिळू शकते. पर्यटनाचा विकास करण्यासाठी या माहितीचा उपयोग केला जातो.

MIS संगणक आणि नेटवर्क वर आधारित आहे. 1940 पासून संगणकाचा विकास सुरु झाला. 1950 पासून MIS ची चर्चा सुरु झाली. आज प्रत्येक उद्योगासाठी आणि शासनासाठी MIS ही अत्यावश्यक व्यवस्था होऊन बसली आहे. या प्रणालींमध्ये सतत विविध ठिकाणांवरून, विविध माणसांकडून आणि विविध प्रकारची माहिती गोळा केली जाते. ती माहिती गोळा करताना अधिकात अधिक अचूक असेल हे पाहण्यासाठी संबंधीत सॉफ्टवेअर मध्ये विशेष तरतूदी केलेल्या असतात. त्यानंतर त्या माहितीवर प्रक्रिया केली जाते. समजण्यास सोप्या अशा पद्धतीने विविध प्रकारे ही माहिती प्रसारित केली जाते.

Read these articles about MIS:-

  1. http://deepread.blogspot.in/2011/06/mis-and-decision-making-concepts.html
  2. MIS article from Boston University, Metropolitan College
  3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qiLXJ0lhN2g - YouTube Video
  4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=593SYDzCUXg - another video - lucid discussion
  5. CEC UGC video - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BFrv4ru9XDk about one hour talk

Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline and Woodrow Wilson's Essay

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION EVOLUTION AS A DISCIPLINE,ROLE UNDER LIBERALISATION , PRIVATIZATION AND GLOBALIZATION AND RECENT TRENDS

Author :- TANYA FRANSZ - https://www.blogger.com/profile/05634266442875300394

Link to the blog :- http://publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.in/
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Source :- http://publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.in/2012/07/public-administrat...

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EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS A DISCIPLINE (FIELD OF STUDY):

It was born in 1887 as a discipline,not as an activity because as an activity as mentioned in my previous blog,public administration is as old as human existence itself. Woodrow Wilson's thought provoking and revolutionary paper 'The Study Of Administration' in the Political Science Quarterly brought it along and that's why he is considered the founder of this discipline.

Public Administration is a combination of both theory and practice. As a discipline it studies and analyses the machinery and procedure of government while formulating and implementing policies and that analysis/study gives birth to new ideas,which are then applied to the activity of govt to test the practicality as to whether it increases efficiency. Therefore they both are interdependent.

There are five stages in the chronology of the evolution of Public Administration as a discipline:


Stage 1: politics administration dichotomy(1887-1926)
Stage 2: principles of administration(1927-1937)
Stage 3: era of challenge(1938-1947)
Stage 4: crises of identity(1948-1970)
Stage 5: public policy perspective(1971 onwards)

The first stage was the manifestation of Woodrow Wilson's view of politics - administration dichotomy( difference between two things as they are completely opposite). This led to a spurt in the interest of its studies in various American as well as universities around the globe and reforms were made in government and thus scholars were attracted to public administration with a new vigour. Woodrow Wilson propogated this view since at that time people were fed up with the govt. and its various policies,rampant corruption and the spoils system that prevailed in the bureaucratic framework. This was the major reason for people to readily lap up his view. L.D. White published a book '' Introduction to the Study Of Public Administration'' in 1926 that further buttressed this view.

The second stage of administrative theory was marked by the same fervour of reinforcing the Wilsonian view of Public Administration of publi-administration dichotomy and evolve a value neutral or rather value free science of management. It was believed that there are certain principles ( guiding/basic ideas) of administration that are common to all organizations and will work for all bringing out optimum efficiency. This was the mature Industrial Revolution period and all that countries were concerned with was increasing production at any cost in order to earn big. Also Industrial revolution's rapid expansion of industries led to new problems in management that were uforeseen and therefore difficult to solve. That's when F.W. Taylor and Henri Fayol stepped in and generated their principles of administration/management. They were succesful administrators in their own right and therefore their views hel a lot of water and were readily accepted by the industies world over. Frederich Winslow Taylor and Henri Fayol advocated for adopting engineering based scientific methods in the field of industrial work process in order to increase efficiency and economy. These schools of thought are grouped under the Classical theory of administration.
Since,we are talking about the Classical theorists of Administration we have to make a very important mention of Max Weber. His conceptual framework of bureaucracy deserves special mention as it brought about a paradigm shift in the theory of public administration. He was the first to provide the discipline with a solid theoretical base. He viewed bureaucracy as a national rules based central system that regulated the organization's structure and process accordingly to technical knowledge and maximum efficiency. He was concerned about the evolution of modern civilization with bureaucracies. All the three theorists mentioned above laid emphasis on the physiological and mechanistic aspects of public administration and that is why this school of thought apart from being called the Clasiical school of thought is also known as the Mechanical theory of organization/administration.

The third stage in the evolution of the theory of public administration is known as the era of challenge because the above mentioned principles and iron cage/mechanistic view of administration and workers was challenged. The Human relations theory brought about a pragmatic view to administrative issues. It emphasisied on the human aspects of administration that sprung from the Hawthorne experiments conducted by Elton Mayo and his colleagues at Harvard Business School in the late 20's and early 30's of the twentieth century. The main focus of study in this approach was to study the psychological and social problems of the industrial workers. The scholars of this theory identified variables like informal organisation,leadership,morale and motivation for maximum use of human resources in industries. This led to a far vast study by Herbert Simon and others that developed the Behavioural Science theory. The behavioural science school of thought propogated by Herbert Simon challenged the principles of admiistration and its mechanistic ways as mere proverbs where one contradicted the other and thus are nothing more than general statements based on person to person experience and lacking a theoretical foudation. Herbert Simon advocated that decision analysis is what should be studied as decision making is the heart of administration where a decision has to be taken at each and every stage of administration day in and day out and administration is a series of decisions that lead to implementation and nothing more. According to Simon if administrative behaviour in an organisational setting has to be anaysed,then that can only be done by studying the decisions taken by the administrators. Chester Barnard and Edwin Stene were other two remarkable theorists of the Behavioural school.

The next stage that is the crisis of identity stage is set in the late 20th century where many parts of the world were just out of wars and colonisation called the developing nations. This phase marked a debate for the return of values in Public administration and cross cultural as well as cross national study of administration. The US also faced a host of crisis in the 1960's and the traditional public adminsitration failed to answer a lot of questions to provide solutions to the problems. Thus grew a need to reinvent public administration and lead to a question as to whether public administration that had been known as it is till then was relevant anymore. Thus was born the concept of ' New Public Administration' courtesy Dwight Waldo from the First Minnowbrook Conference in 1968 attended by young scholars and practitioners of Public Administration. These were the second generation behaviouralists as per George Frederickson who was a very important part of the FIrst Minnowbrook Conference and the main convenor of the 2nd Minnowbrook conference 20 years later in 1988. It laid stress on values in public administration and a commitedness by administrators and scholars of the discipline towards value formulation and their implementation. It developed the thought of society and its welfare as the main goal of public administration in today's times through the public policy approach. It brought democratic humanism and client orientation as well as the science perspective in New Public Administration. The collapse of the SOviet Union also strengthened this view.

Public Policy theory,the next stage in the development of Public Administration theory. Public policy is an attempt by a government to address a public issue by instituting laws, regulations, decisions, or actions pertinent to the problem at hand. It is policy that is made for the welfare of the people and their development. As a discipline public policy perspective is the study of govt. policies for the people and its pros and cons and how to better the same. Here it has come closer to political science again and also has incorporated many management principles to help public administration cope up with the dynamics of its discipline and conduct.

So these were the various stages of Public Administration's evolution as a discipline.

ROLE UNDER LIBERALISATION,PRIVATISATION & GLOBALISATION:
Under LPG the bureaucracy has to play an open and competitive role as the policy of LPG affects the role,values and skills of public bureaucracy. Liberalisation is the withdrawal of all direct controls of the govt on the ecoomic sectors through deregulation,delicensing and decontrol of pricing and distribution of products and services. Privatisation is the transfer of public ownership to private ownership that will help lead to efficiency and encourage investment that will eventually help in development of infrastructure and social programmes. Globalisation is the opening up of world trade thus converting the world into a global village or global market.
Therefore,under these new reforms Public Administration has to very fairly play the role of a enabler,collaborater,facilitator,co-operation,partnering(through public-pvt partnership in various sectors like telecom,airlines,electricityetc),regulating the market and directly handling sensitives depts such as defence,law and order,atomic energy and foreign policy. And with regards to social programmes and policies effective implementation it can partner up with various NGO's and charity organisations.

RECENT AND CURRENT TRENDS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:

Growth of science and technology has brought about a period of stress as well as development in the field of Public Administration both as an art(way of conducting and actually doing the activies of Public Administration by administrators) and as a science( academics,field of study for students and scholars).
The recent trends are:
1) Public - Private Partnership : Though the differences in public and pvt administration one must not forget that if they both team up viz. their respective strengths it can lead to the best of both worlds. Public administration brings in its expertise on social issues and policies and pvt admin brings in its specialisation on management and how to improve efficiency to achieve the pre-set goals by the public policy.

2) Public Administration In Policy making : Public administration as we all know very well can never be seperated from policy formulation but nowadays it is becoming all the more dominant and is easily seen. Civil services can give shape to stated policies through exercise of choice and judgement in administering them and secondly they are engaged in policy formulation through their suggestive,analytical and interpretative roles.

3) Movement towards political economy: Recently economists have developed new methods of analysing the cost and benefits of govt. programmes and administrators are choosing more and more economics as a base of public admin than political science.

4) New emerging goals of Public Administration: Efficiency( read. Technical Efficiency) and effectiveness are the ultimate goals of Public Administration.

5) Staff and line units are complimentary,not antognostic. Line agencies are the field work agencies and staff units are the technically specialised co-ordination and facilitating agencies between upper management from where decisions come and the line agencies who implement them first hand.

6) Human Relations approach in Public Administration: Its main orientation is towards change in attitudes,values and structures of organisations.

7) People's participation decision making: minority groups and poor as well are now getting their share.

8) Decentralisation: Panchayats and Municipal corporations constitutional status.

9) Emerging changes in bureaucratic pattern and behaviour: It emphasis upon formal structure,hierarchy and efficiency. It is the most important in a democratic form of govt for development of the welfare of the people. It is centrally involved in change and transformation of society. Recently there has been a growth and spread of new management techniques in public administration. It is cocerned with human goals now like : life,liberty and pursuit of happiness. The new public administration is concerned about social equity.sensitivity to human suffering and social needs.

FYBA SEMESTER I - REVISED SYLLABUS IMPLEMENTED SINCE 2016-17

REVISED SYLLABUS
AS PER CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS)
(TO BE IMPLEMENTED FROM THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2016-17)

Political map of India and its neighbours

Click this link to see a short note about all topics in the syllabus in Marathi - the document is currently being updated.

FYBA
POLITICS PAPER I

SEMESTER I TITLE: INDIAN POLITICAL SYSTEM

SUB-TITLE: THE CONSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

1. INTRODUCTION TO THE CONSTITUTION (12)
1.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE MAKING OF CONSTITUTION
1.2 PREMABLE
1.3 BASIC FEATURES

2. CITIZENS AND THE CONSTITUTION (11)
2.1 FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS – ARTS 14 TO 19
2.2 FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS –ARTS- 20 TO 32
2.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

3. LEGISLATURE AND JUDICIARY (11)
3.1 PARLIAMENT
3.2 JUDICIAL SYSTEM – ORIGINAL AND WRIT JURISDICTION
3.3 JUDICIAL ACTIVISM

4. EXECUTIVE (11)
4.1 UNION EXECUTIVE - THE PRESIDENT
4.2 PRIME MINISTER AND COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
4.3 LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT – 73rd,74th, AMENDMENTS AND
THEIR IMPLEMENTATION

SUGGESTED READINGS:

1. Basu, Durga Das, Introduction to the Constitution of India, Lexis Nexis, 2012.
2. Laxmikant, M, Indian Polity, TMH, 2015.
3. Laxmikant, M., Governance in India, TMH, 2015.
4. Pylee, M. V., An Introduction to the Constitution of India, Vikas Publishing, 2008.
5. Sharma, Brij Kishore, Introduction to the Constitution of India, PHI Learning, 2009.
6. क्षीरसागर, के. श्री., भारतीयराज्यव्यवस्था, विद्याप्रकाशन.
7. घांग्रेकर, चिं. ग., भारतीयराज्यघटना, श्रीमंगेशप्रकाशन, २००१.
8. जाधव, तुकाराम, आणिशिरापूरकर, महेश, भारतीयराज्यघटनावघटनात्मकप्रक्रिया, युनिकअकादमी, २०१४.

२०१६-१७ पासून पहिल्या सेमीस्टर च्या अभ्यासक्रमामध्ये बदल करण्यात आला आहे.
मागच्या वर्षीपर्यंत तिसऱ्या सेमीस्टर च्या अभ्यासासाठी असलेला
भारतीय राजकीय व्यवस्थेचा पेपर काही बदल करून पहिल्या सेमीस्टरला लागू करण्यात आला आहे.
तुमचा बदललेला अभ्यासक्रम लक्षात घेऊन
या लेखासोबत जोडलेल्या पुस्तकाचा वापर तुम्ही अभ्यासासाठी करू शकता.
इंग्रजी व मराठी अशा दोन्ही माध्यमातील पुस्तके उपलब्ध आहेत.
नव्याने समाविष्ट केलेले जे भाग या पुस्तकात नाहीत त्याविषयीची माहिती लवकरच या ठिकाणी पाहता येईल.

  1. भारतीय राज्यघटनेच्या निर्मीतीचा इतिहास
  2. न्यायालयीन कृतीशीलता
  3. स्थानिक स्वराज्य संस्था
  4. ७३ आणि ७४ वी घटना दुरुस्ती आणि दोन्ही घटना दुरुस्त्यांची अंमलबजावणी

हे चार मुद्दे या पुस्तकांमध्ये समाविष्ट नाहीत.

भारतीय राज्यघटना मूळातून वाचण्यासाठी या लिंकवर क्लिक करा.
"This information is downloaded from the website of Ministry of Law and Justice (Legislative Department) Government of India".

हिंदी आणि इंग्रजी अशा दोन आवृत्त्या सर्व घटना दुरुस्त्यांसहीत उपलब्ध आहेत.

Sample Question Papers

Study Material - FYBA, SYBA and TYBA

Gurudeo Ravindranath Tagore

A Nobel laureate - who was the first non European to get a Nobel prize for His Work Gitanjali in 1913, a polymath - poet, philosopher

Ideas about nationalism are stated in his book Nationalism published in 1917 and reprinted twice in 1918.

Foreign Policy and Diplomacy

What is an agnostic?

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Copyright © 2005 Scepsis.net".
This material may not be copied or distributed for commercial purposes without express written permission of the copyright holder.

What Is an agnostic?

-by Bertrand Russell

An agnostic thinks it impossible to know the truth in matters such as God and the future life with which Christianity and other religions are concerned. Or, if not impossible, at least impossible at the present time.

Are agnostics atheists?

No. An atheist, like a Christian, holds that we can know whether or not there is a God. The Christian holds that we can know there is a God; the atheist, that we can know there is not. The Agnostic suspends judgment, saying that there are not sufficient grounds either for affirmation or for denial. At the same time, an Agnostic may hold that the existence of God, though not impossible, is very improbable; he may even hold it so improbable that it is not worth considering in practice. In that case, he is not far removed from atheism. His attitude may be that which a careful philosopher would have towards the gods of ancient Greece. If I were asked to prove that Zeus and Poseidon and Hera and the rest of the Olympians do not exist, I should be at a loss to find conclusive arguments. An Agnostic may think the Christian God as improbable as the Olympians; in that case, he is, for practical purposes, at one with the atheists.

Since you deny `God's Law', what authority do you accept as a guide to conduct?

An Agnostic does not accept any `authority' in the sense in which religious people do. He holds that a man should think out questions of conduct for himself. Of course, he will seek to profit by the wisdom of others, but he will have to select for himself the people he is to consider wise, and he will not regard even what they say as unquestionable. He will observe that what passes as `God's law' varies from time to time. The Bible says both that a woman must not marry her deceased husband's brother, and that, in certain circumstances, she must do so. If you have the misfortune to be a childless widow with an unmarried brother-in-law, it is logically impossible for you to avoid disobeying `God's law'.

How do you know what is good and what is evil? What does an agnostic consider a sin?

The Agnostic is not quite so certain as some Christians are as to what is good and what is evil. He does not hold, as most Christians in the past held, that people who disagree with the government on abstruse points of theology ought to suffer a painful death. He is against persecution, and rather chary of moral condemnation.

As for `sin', he thinks it not a useful notion. He admits, of course, that some kinds of conduct are desirable and some undesirable, but he holds that the punishment of undesirable kinds is only to be commended when it is deterrent or reformatory, not when it is inflicted because it is thought a good thing on its own account that the wicked should suffer. It was this belief in vindictive punishment that made men accept Hell. This is part of the harm done by the notion of `sin'.

Does an agnostic do whatever he pleases?

In one sense, no; in another sense, everyone does whatever he pleases. Suppose, for example, you hate someone so much that you would like to murder him. Why do you not do so? You may reply: "Because religion tells me that murder is a sin." But as a statistical fact, agnostics are not more prone to murder than other people, in fact, rather less so. They have the same motives for abstaining from murder as other people have. Far and away the most powerful of these motives is the fear of punishment. In lawless conditions, such as a gold rush, all sorts of people will commit crimes, although in ordinary circumstances they would have been law-abiding. There is not only actual legal punishment; there is the discomfort of dreading discovery, and the loneliness of knowing that, to avoid being hated, you must wear a mask with even your closest intimates. And there is also what may be called "conscience": If you ever contemplated a murder, you would dread the horrible memory of your victim's last moments or lifeless corpse. All this, it is true, depends upon your living in a law-abiding community, but there are abundant secular reasons for creating and preserving such a community.

I said that there is another sense in which every man does as he pleases. No one but a fool indulges every impulse, but what holds a desire in check is always some other desire. A man's anti-social wishes may be restrained by a wish to please God, but they may also be restrained by a wish to please his friends, or to win the respect of his community, or to be able to contemplate himself without disgust. But if he has no such wishes, the mere abstract concepts of morality will not keep him straight.

How does an agnostic regard the Bible?

An agnostic regards the Bible exactly as enlightened clerics regard it. He does not think that it is divinely inspired; he thinks its early history legendary, and no more exactly true than that in Homer; he thinks its moral teaching sometimes good, but sometimes very bad. For example: Samuel ordered Saul, in a war, to kill not only every man, woman, and child of the enemy, but also all the sheep and cattle. Saul, however, let the sheep and the cattle live, and for this we are told to condemn him. I have never been able to admire Elisha for cursing the children who laughed at him, or to believe (what the Bible asserts) that a benevolent Deity would send two she-bears to kill the children.

How does an agnostic regard Jesus, the Virgin Birth, and the Holy Trinity?

Since an agnostic does not believe in God, he cannot think that Jesus was God. Most agnostics admire the life and moral teachings of Jesus as told in the Gospels, but not necessarily more than those of certain other men. Some would place him on a level with Buddha, some with Socrates and some with Abraham Lincoln. Nor do they think that what He said is not open to question, since they do not accept any authority as absolute.

They regard the Virgin Birth as a doctrine taken over from pagan mythology, where such births were not uncommon. (Zoroaster was said to have been born of a virgin; Ishtar, the Babylonian goddess, is called the Holy Virgin.) They cannot give credence to it, or to the doctrine of the Trinity, since neither is possible without belief in God.

Can an agnostic be a Christian?

The word "Christian" has had various different meanings at different times. Throughout most of the centuries since the time of Christ, it has meant a person who believed God and immortality and held that Christ was God. But Unitarians call themselves Christians, although they do not believe in the divinity of Christ, and many people nowadays use the word "God" in a much less precise sense than that which it used to bear. Many people who say they believe in God no longer mean a person, or a trinity of persons, but only a vague tendency or power or purpose immanent in evolution. Others, going still further, mean by "Christianity" merely a system of ethics which, since they are ignorant of history, they imagine to be characteristic of Christians only.

When, in a recent book, I said that what the world needs is "love, Christian love, or compassion," many people thought this showed some changes in my views, although in fact, I might have said the same thing at any time. If you mean by a "Christian" a man who loves his neighbor, who has wide sympathy with suffering, and who ardently desires a world freed from the cruelties and abominations which at present disfigure it, then, certainly, you will be justified in calling me a Christian. And, in this sense, I think you will find more "Christians" among agnostics than among the orthodox. But, for my part, I cannot accept such a definition. Apart from other objections to it, it seems rude to Jews, Buddhists, Mohammedans, and other non-Christians, who, so far as history shows, have been at least as apt as Christians to practice the virtues which some modern Christians arrogantly claim as distinctive of their own religion.

I think also that all who called themselves Christians in an earlier time, and a great majority of those who do so at the present day, would consider that belief in God and immortality is essential to a Christian. On these grounds, I should not call myself a Christian, and I should say that an agnostic cannot be a Christian. But, if the word "Christianity" comes to be generally used to mean merely a kind of morality, then it will certainly be possible for an agnostic to be a Christian.

Does an agnostic deny that man has a soul?

This question has no precise meaning unless we are given a definition of the word "soul." I suppose what is meant is, roughly, something nonmaterial which persists throughout a person's life and even, for those who believe in immortality, throughout all future time. If this is what is meant, an agnostic is not likely to believe that man has a soul. But I must hasten to add that this does not mean that an agnostic must be a materialist. Many agnostics (including myself) are quite as doubtful of the body as they are of the soul, but this is a long story taking one into difficult metaphysics. Mind and matter alike, I should say, are only convenient symbols in discourse, not actually existing things.

Does an agnostic believe in a hereafter, in Heaven or Hell?

The question whether people survive death is one as to which evidence is possible. Psychical research and spiritualism are thought by many to supply such evidence. An agnostic, as such, does not take a view about survival unless he thinks that there is evidence one way or the other. For my part, I do not think there is any good reason to believe that we survive death, but I am open to conviction if adequate evidence should appear.

Heaven and hell are a different matter. Belief in hell is bound up with the belief that the vindictive punishment of sin is a good thing, quite independently of any reformative or deterrent effect that it may have. Hardly an agnostic believes this. As for heaven, there might conceivably someday be evidence of its existence through spiritualism, but most agnostics do not think that there is such evidence, and therefore do not believe in heaven.

Are you never afraid of God's judgment in denying Him?

Most certainly not. I also deny Zeus and Jupiter and Odin and Brahma, but this causes me no qualms. I observe that a very large portion of the human race does not believe in God and suffers no visible punishment in consequence. And if there were a God, I think it very unlikely that He would have such an uneasy vanity as to be offended by those who doubt His existence.

How do agnostics explain the beauty and harmony of nature?

I do not understand where this "beauty" and "harmony" are supposed to be found. Throughout the animal kingdom, animals ruthlessly prey upon each other. Most of them are either cruelly killed by other animals or slowly die of hunger. For my part, I am unable to see any great beauty or harmony in the tapeworm. Let it not be said that this creature is sent as a punishment for our sins, for it is more prevalent among animals than among humans. I suppose the questioner is thinking of such things as the beauty of the starry heavens. But one should remember that stars every now and again explode and reduce everything in their neighborhood to a vague mist. Beauty, in any case, is subjective and exists only in the eye of the beholder.

How do agnostics explain miracles and other revelations of God's omnipotence?

Agnostics do not think that there is any evidence of "miracles" in the sense of happenings contrary to natural law. We know that faith healing occurs and is in no sense miraculous. At Lourdes, certain diseases can be cured and others cannot. Those that can be cured at Lourdes can probably be cured by any doctor in whom the patient has faith. As for the records of other miracles, such as Joshua commanding the sun to stand still, the agnostic dismisses them as legends and points to the fact that all religions are plentifully supplied with such legends. There is just as much miraculous evidence for the Greek gods in Homer as for the Christian God in the Bible.

There have been base and cruel passions, which religion opposes. If you abandon religious principles, could mankind exist?

The existence of base and cruel passions is undeniable, but I find no evidence in history that religion has opposed these passions. On the contrary, it has sanctified them, and enabled people to indulge them without remorse. Cruel persecutions have been commoner in Christendom than anywhere else. What appears to justify persecution is dogmatic belief. Kindliness and tolerance only prevail in proportion as dogmatic belief decays. In our day, a new dogmatic religion, namely, communism, has arisen. To this, as to other systems of dogma, the agnostic is opposed. The persecuting character of present day communism is exactly like the persecuting character of Christianity in earlier centuries. In so far as Christianity has become less persecuting, this is mainly due to the work of freethinkers who have made dogmatists rather less dogmatic. If they were as dogmatic now as in former times, they would still think it right to burn heretics at the stake. The spirit of tolerance which some modern Christians regard as essentially Christian is, in fact, a product of the temper which allows doubt and is suspicious of absolute certainties. I think that anybody who surveys past history in an impartial manner will be driven to the conclusion that religion has caused more suffering than it has prevented.

What is the meaning of life to the agnostic?

I feel inclined to answer by another question: What is the meaning of `the meaning of life'? I suppose what is intended is some general purpose. I do not think that life in general has any purpose. It just happened. But individual human beings have purposes, and there is nothing in agnosticism to cause them to abandon these purposes. They cannot, of course, be certain of achieving the results at which they aim; but you would think ill of a soldier who refused to fight unless victory was certain. The person who needs religion to bolster up his own purposes is a timorous person, and I cannot think as well of him as of the man who takes his chances, while admitting that defeat is not impossible.

Does not the denial of religion mean the denial of marriage and chastity?

Here again, one must reply by another question: Does the man who asks this question believe that marriage and chastity contribute to earthly happiness here below, or does he think that, while they cause misery here below, they are to be advocated as means of getting to heaven? The man who takes the latter view will no doubt expect agnosticism to lead to a decay of what he calls virtue, but he will have to admit that what he calls virtue is not what ministers to the happiness of the human race while on earth. If, on the other hand, he takes the former view, namely, that there are terrestrial arguments in favor of marriage and chastity, he must also hold that these arguments are such as should appeal to the agnostic. Agnostics, as such, have no distinctive views about sexual morality. But most of them would admit that there are valid arguments against the unbridled indulgence of sexual desires. They would derive these arguments, however, from terrestrial sources and not from supposed divine commands.

Is not faith in reason alone a dangerous creed? Is not reason imperfect and inadequate without spiritual and moral law?

No sensible man, however agnostic, has "faith in reason alone." Reason is concerned with matters of fact, some observed, some inferred. The question whether there is a future life and the question whether there is a God concern matters of fact, and the agnostic will hold that they should be investigated in the same way as the question, "Will there be an eclipse of the moon tomorrow?" But matters of fact alone are not sufficient to determine action, since they do not tell us what ends we ought to pursue. In the realm of ends, we need something other than reason. The agnostic will find his ends in his own heart and not in an external command. Let us take an illustration: Suppose you wish to travel by train from New York to Chicago; you will use reason to discover when the trains run, and a person who though that there was some faculty of insight or intuition enabling him to dispense with the timetable would be thought rather silly. But no timetable will tell him that it is wise, he will have to take account of further matters of fact; but behind all the matters of fact, there will be the ends that he thinks fitting to pursue, and these, for an agnostic as for other men, belong to a realm which is not that of reason, though it should be in no degree contrary to it. The realm I mean is that of emotion and feeling and desire.

Do you regard all religions as forms of superstition or dogma? Which of the existing religions do you most respect, and why?

All the great organized religions that have dominated large populations have involved a greater or less amount of dogma, but "religion" is a word of which the meaning is not very definite. Confucianism, for instance, might be called a religion, although it involves no dogma. And in some forms of liberal Christianity, the element of dogma is reduced to a minimum.

Of the great religions of history, I prefer Buddhism, especially in its earliest forms, because it has had the smallest element of persecution.

Communism like agnosticism opposes religion, are agnostics Communists?

Communism does not oppose religion. It merely opposes the Christian religion, just as Mohammedanism does. Communism, at least in the form advocated by the Soviet Government and the Communist Party, is a new system of dogma of a peculiarly virulent and persecuting sort. Every genuine Agnostic must therefore be opposed to it.

Do agnostics think that science and religion are impossible to reconcile?

The answer turns upon what is meant by `religion'. If it means merely a system of ethics, it can be reconciled with science. If it means a system of dogma, regarded as unquestionably true, it is incompatible with the scientific spirit, which refuses to accept matters of fact without evidence, and also holds that complete certainty is hardly ever impossible.

What kind of evidence could convince you that God exists?

I think that if I heard a voice from the sky predicting all that was going to happen to me during the next twenty-four hours, including events that would have seemed highly improbable, and if all these events then produced to happen, I might perhaps be convinced at least of the existence of some superhuman intelligence. I can imagine other evidence of the same sort which might convince me, but so far as I know, no such evidence exists.

1953

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Sheshrao More

Mon, 07/08/2013 - 11:08 — Shubharaj Buwa

शेषराव मोरे हे वतनदार पाटलाच्या पण एका खेड्यातील शेतकरी कुटुंबात जन्मलेले. मॅट्रिकपर्यंत त्यांनी शेतीकाम केलेच,
पण पुढे शेती विकून टाकीपर्यंत (1990) शेतात काम करण्याचा छंद सोडला नाही. सामाजिक शास्त्रांचे प्राध्यापक होण्याची
त्यांची इच्छा, पण इतरांमुळे नाइलाजाने त्यांना अभियांत्रिकीचे पदवीधर व प्राध्यापक व्हावे लागले.

पण आपला मूळ पिंड त्यांनी सोडला नाही. अभियांत्रिकीच्या अध्यापन काळात दिवसाकाठी सरासरी 7-8 तासांपेक्षा अधिक वेळ सामाजिक शास्त्रांच्या
अभ्यासासाठी देणे शक्य होत नसल्यामुळे वीस वर्ष पूर्ण होताच स्वेच्छा सेवामुक्ती घेऊन (1994) त्यांनी या अभ्यासाला पूर्णतः
वाहून घेतले.

तीव्र बुद्धिमत्ता, बुद्धिवादी जीवनदृष्टी, तर्कशुद्ध विचार, अभियांत्रिकी आणि कायद्याच्या अभ्यासामुळे आलेला काटेकोरपणा,
वास्तवाचे भान, स्वतंत्र विचार करण्याची पद्धत, अभ्यासांती पूर्वीचे निष्कर्ष बदलण्याची तयारी, जे पटले ते स्पष्टपणे मांडण्याचा
निर्भीडपणा, आणि हे सारे करण्यामागे समाज व राष्ट्रहिताची तळमळ ही वैशिष्ट्ये त्यांच्या व्यक्तिमत्त्वातून व लेखनातून दिसून येतात.
त्यांची खालील ग्रंथसंपदा याची साक्ष देणारी आहे.

1. सावरकरांच्या बुद्धिवादः एक चिकित्सक अभ्यास (1988, 92) (संक्षिप्त आवृत्ती)
सावरकरांचा बुद्धिवाद व हिंदुत्ववाद (2003, 06)

2. सावरकरांचे समाजकारणः सत्य आणि विपर्यास (1992) (संक्षिप्त आवृत्ती) सावरकरांच्या समाजक्रांतीचे अंतरंग (2003)

3. काश्मीरः एक शापित नंदनवन (1995, 2001, 04)

4. डॉ. आंबेडकरांचे सामाजिक धोरणः एक अभ्यास (1998)

5. विचारकलह (भाग पहिला) (1998)

6. अप्रिय पण... (भाग पहिला) (2001)
http://www.bookganga.com/eBooks/Book/4871229789918335149.htm?Book=Apriya...
अप्रिय (पण सत्य व हितकारक) लिहिण्याचे शेषराव मोरे यांनी जणू व्रतच घेतले आहे. तीन वर्ष दर शुक्रवारी `सामना’ दैनिकात
त्यांनी लिहिलेल्या लोकप्रिय सदराचे नावच होतेः `अप्रिय पण...’. त्यातीलच काही लेखांचा हा संग्रह.

ज्यांची बांधिलकी सत्याशी असते ते कोणत्याच विशिष्ट विचारसरणीशी बांधील नसतात. म्हणून प्रचलित
एखाद्या (प्रतिगामी, पुरोगामी, समाजवादी, हिंदुत्ववादी इ.) विचारसरणीच्या चौकटीत त्यांना बसविण्याचा अनाठायी प्रयत्न कोणी करू नये.
हे लेख वाचून लेखक कोणत्या विचारसरणीचा आहे याचा तर्क करीत बसू नये.

म्हणूनच ते एकीकडे `शंकराचार्यांनी हिंदूंसाठी काय केले?’ म्हणून त्यांना टीकेचे लक्ष्य बनवितात; यज्ञधर्मावर कठोर प्रहार करतात;
संतपीठाच्या योजनेसंबंधात प्रश्र्न उपस्थित करतात. तर दुसरीकडे औरंगजेबाला `सेक्युलर’ व शिवाजीला `जातीय’ म्हणणार्‍या
असगर अली इंजिनियरचे अंतरंग उघड करतात. एकीकडे `स्वदेशी’वर लिहिताना त्याच्या मुळाशी चातुर्वर्ण्याचे तत्त्व कसे आहे हे
ते दाखवून देऊन हिंदुत्वनिष्ठांना दुखवितात, तर दुसरीकडे डॉ. झकेरियांचा अखंड भारताचा पुरस्कार कसा घातक आहे, तसेच
मौलवींना राजकारणात आणण्यात अग्रमान मौ. आझादांकडे कसा जातो हेही ते दाखवून देतात.

प्रथमदर्शनी जे दिसते, रूढ आहे व जनमानसाला भावते त्यापेक्षा त्या गोष्टीचे अंतरंग कसे वेगळे आहे हे अप्रिय कथन करणे हा त्यांचा लेखनपिंडच आहे.

कोणतेही भाष्य न करता वा स्वतःचे निष्कर्ष न मांडता वाचकांच्या विचारार्थ एखादी गोष्ट जशी आहे तशी स्पष्ट करून सांगणे हे त्यांच्या लेखनाचे
एक वैशिष्ट्य आहे. या दृष्टीने या संग्रहातील `साने गुरुजींचा ग्रंथः इस्लामी संस्कृती’, `सर्वोच्च न्यायालयाचा हिंदुधर्मगौरव’, `मुस्लिम
स्वातंत्र्यवीरांचे स्मरण करा’ वा `बौद्ध व वैदिक धर्मीयांना दावत’ या लेखांचा उल्लेख करता येईल.

`अप्रिय’ असले तरी यातील वस्तुनिष्ठ व मूलगामी चिंतन असणारे अभ्यासपूर्ण लेख वाचकांना हितकारक व विचारप्रवर्तक वाटतील यात शंका नाही.

7. शासनपुरस्कृत मनुवादीः पांडुरंगशास्त्री आठवले (2001, 05)

8. मुस्लिम मनाचा शोध (2000, 1, 3)

9. Islam : Maker of the Muslim Mind (2004)

10. प्रेषितांनंतरचे चार आदर्श खलिफा (2006)

11. 1857 चा जिहाद (2007)

12. अप्रिय पण... (भाग दुसरा) (2008) आगामीः 57 जिहाद ते 47ची फाळणी. अभिनव निर्माण प्रतिष्ठान

Source: http://www.bookganga.com/eBooks/Author/5006408657191799124.htm

Semester 3 Questions - Indian Political System - The Constitutional Context & Public Administration

Indian Political System - The Constitutional Context

Descriptive answers (15 marks each)

  1. Explain the basic features of Indian constitution. भारतीय राज्यघटनेची मूलभूत वैशिष्ट्ये स्पष्ट करा.
  2. Discuss the 4th, 16th, and 25th Amendment to the Indian constitution. भारतीय राज्यघटने मधील ४, १६ आणि २५ व्या घटना दुरुस्तीची चर्चा करा
  3. Discuss the 42nd Amendment to the Indian constitution. भारतीय राज्यघटने मधील ४२ व्या घटना दुरुस्तीची चर्चा करा
  4. Discuss any two major amendments to the Indian constitution. भारतीय राज्यघटने मधील कोणत्याही दोन घटना दुरुस्त्यांची चर्चा करा
  5. Discuss the Preamble to the Indian Constitution. भारतीय राज्यघटनेच्या सरनाम्याची चर्चा करा.
  6. Discuss the fundamental rights to liberty and equality. स्वातंत्र्य आणि समानतेच्या मूलभूत हक्कांची चर्चा करा.
  7. Discuss the fundamental right to education. शिक्षणाच्या मूलभूत हक्काची चर्चा करा.
  8. Discuss the fundamental rights are granted to the Indian citizens. भारतीय नागरिकांना देण्यात आलेल्या मूलभूत हक्कांची चर्चा करा.
  9. Discuss the directive principles stated in the Indian Constitution. भारतीय राज्यघटनेमध्ये मांडलेल्या मार्गदर्शक तत्त्वांची चर्चा करा.
  10. Differentiate between fundamental rights and directive principles. मूलभूत हक्क आणि मार्गदर्शक तत्वांमधील फरक स्पष्ट करा.
  11. Explain the structure and functions of Rajyasabha. राज्यसभेची रचना आणि कार्ये स्पष्ट करा.
  12. Explain the powers and functions of President of India. भारतीय राष्ट्रपतींचे अधिकार आणि कार्ये स्पष्ट करा.
  13. Explain the powers and functions of Prime Minister of India. भारताच्या पंतप्रधानांचे अधिकार आणि कार्ये स्पष्ट करा.
  14. Explain the constitutional division of powers between central and state governments in India. भारतातील केंद्र आणि राज्य सरकारांमधील सत्तेचे घटनात्मक विभाजन स्पष्ट करा.
  15. Explain the structure and functions of the Supreme Court of India. भारतीय सर्वोच्च न्यायालयाची रचना आणि कार्ये स्पष्ट करा.
  16. What is federalism? Briefly describe the three lists in Indian constitution. संघराज्यवाद म्हणजे काय? भारतीय राज्यघटनेतील तीन याद्यांचे थोडक्यात वर्णन करा.
  17. Briefly review the demand for smaller states within the existing states of India. भारताच्या सध्याच्या घटक राज्यांमधील छोट्या राज्यांच्या मागणीचा थोडक्यात आढावा घ्या.
  18. Explain the concepts of public interest litigation and judicial activism. जनहीत याचिका आणि न्यायालयीन कृतीशीलता या संकल्पना स्पष्ट करा.
  19. Briefly discuss the report of the Sarkaria commission. सरकारीया आयोगाच्या अहवालाची थोडक्यात चर्चा करा.
  20. Review the demand for creation of separate state of Vidarbha. स्वतंत्र विदर्भ राज्याच्या मागणीचा आढावा घ्या.

    Write short notes (5 marks each)

    1. Preamble to the Indian constitution भारतीय राज्यघटनेचा सरनामा
    2. 92nd amendment - ९२ वी घटना दुरुस्ती
    3. 86th amendment - ८६ वी घटना दुरुस्ती
    4. 73rd and 74th amendment ७३ आणि ७४ वी घटना दुरुस्ती
    5. 7th Schedule of the Indian constitution. भारतीय राज्यघटनेची सातवी अनुसूची.
    6. 3rd Schedule of the Indian constitution. भारतीय राज्यघटनेची तिसरी अनुसूची.
    7. 8thSchedule of the Indian constitution. भारतीय राज्यघटनेची आठवी अनुसूची.
    8. Right against exploitation – शोषणाविरुद्धचा हक्क
    9. Cultural and educational rights – सांस्कृतिक आणि शैक्षणिक हक्क
    10. Upper chamber of Indian Parliament – भारतीय संसदेचे वरिष्ठ सभागृह
    11. Prime Minister of India भारताचे पंतप्रधान
    12. Attorney General for India भारताचे अॅटर्नी जनरल
    13. President of India भारतीय राष्ट्रपती.
    14. Vice President of India भारताचे उपराष्ट्रपती
    15. Demand for autonomy स्वायत्ततेची मागणी

SEARCH - Society for Education, Action, Research and Community Health

सर्च, अभय आणि राणी बंग यांच्या नेतृत्वाखाली उभी राहिलेली संघटना.

In search of health care for the rural and tribal people

" I shall give you a talisman. When faced with a dilemma as to what your next step should be,
remember the most wretched and vulnerable human being you ever saw. The step you contemplate should help him !" Mahatma Gandhi

Guided by the words of Mahatma Gandhi, SEARCH began its journey in 1986 in SEARCH of enabling the disadvantaged communities to achieve "Arogya- Swaraj"

Background : SEARCH (Society for Education, Action and Research in Community Health) is a non-government organisation registered as a public trust and charitable society in India. (Reg. No: MH 35-85-GAD, F-224-GAD). It was founded in 1985 by a doctor couple, Abhay Bang and Rani Bang.

Inspired by the life and philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi, trained respectively as a physician and a gynecologist, and after studying at the Johns Hopkins University USA, for their Master of Public Health, Drs. Bang returned to India. Their dream was to develop an institution of community health which provided health care to the local population, and generated knowledge for the global community by way of research.

गडचिरोली पासून 17 कि.मी. अंतरावर गडचिरोली धानोरा मार्गावर संस्थेचे मुख्यालय आहे. मुंबईपासून 1092 कि. मी. नागपूरपासून 182 कि.मी. आणि चंद्रपूरपासून 85 कि. मी. - नागपूर विमानतळ हा सर्वात जवळचा विमानतळ तर चंद्रपूर हे सर्वात जवळचे रेल्वे स्टेशन.

आरोग्य स्वराज्य प्रत्यक्षात आणणे हे त्यांचे मोठे स्वप्न आहे. आरोग्य स्वराज्य म्हणजे लोकांना आणि समुदायांना त्यांच्या आरोग्याची जबाबदारी त्यांच्या हाती घ्यायला शिकवणे आणि त्याद्वारे रोगापासून आणि कोणावर तरी अवलंबून राहण्यापासून मुक्ती मिळवणे.

References:-

A speech by Abhay Bang

SEARCH Website

TYBA Semester 6 - study material

Maharashtra Vidhansabha 2014

File: 

Semester End Exam Papers


Quetion Papers

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Political Science

Past Question Papers - College and University Exams - All semesters

Paper numbers included under each semester

Old Question Papers
Academic Year Sr. No. Exam Month Year Sem I Sem II Sem III Sem IV Sem V Sem VI
2015-16 1 Regular & ATKT October 2015 1 1 2 3 2 3 4 5 6 4 5 6
2 Regular & ATKT March 2016 1 1 2 3 2 3 4 5 6 4 5 6
2016-17 3 Regular & ATKT October 2016 1 1 2 3 2 3 4 5 6 4 5 6
4 Regular & ATKT March 2017 1 1 2 3 2 3 4 5 6 4 5 6

75-25 pattern

From 2016-17 this pattern was not applicable for FYBA and FYBCOM. New 100 marks pattern with no internal exam was implemented. For SY 2016-17 and TY 2016-17, 2017-18 batches old pattern (75-25) will continue.

Internal Assessment

Class test - 20 marks
Performance in the Class - 5 marks
Total internal marks = 25
Minimum marks for passing - 10

Semester end test

75 marks
duration 2.5 hours
Minimum marks for passing - 30

Total 100 marks for a semester for each paper.

Question paper pattern for both the exams will be declared later.

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